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Department of Molecular Life Sciences Former Research IMLS


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Schaffner W (2015). Enhancers, enhancers - from their discovery to today's universe of transcription enhancers. Biol Chem Apr;396(4):311-27. [review] Abstract,

Full paper: Enhancer Review by Walter Schaffner (PDF, 1 MB)

Bethge T, Hachemi HA, Manzetti J, Gosert R, Schaffner W, Hirsch HH (2015). Sp1 binding sites in the noncoding control region of BK polyomavirus are key regulators of bidirectional viral early and late gene expression. J Virol Mar;89(6):3396-411. Abstract

Keiser S, Schmidt K, Bethge T, Steiger J, Hirsch HH, Schaffner W, Georgiev O (2014). Emergence of infectious simian virus 40 whose AT tract in the replication origin/early promoter region is substituted by cellular or viral DNAs. J Gen Virol Mar;96(Pt3):601-606. Abstract

Georgiev O, Günther V, Steiner K, Schönrath K, Schaffner W (2014). The legless lizard Anguis fragilis (slow worm) has a potent metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). Biol Chem Apr;395(4):425-431. Abstract

Maricic T, Günther V, Georgiev O, Gehre S, Curlin M, Schreiweis C, Naumann R, Burbano HA, Meyer M, Lalueza-Fox C, de la Rasilla M, Rosas A, Gajovic S, Kelso J, Enard W, Schaffner W, Pääbo S (2012). A Recent Evolutionary Change Affects a Regulatory Element in the Human FOXP2 Gene. Mol Biol Evol. Apr;30(4):844-852. Abstract

Günther V, Lindert U, Schaffner W (2012). A taste of heavy metals: Gene regulation by MTF-1 (Review). Biochim Biophys Acta (Mol Cell Res). Sep;1823(9):1416-25. Abstract

Günther V, Strassen T, Lindert U, Dagani P, Waldvogel D, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Bethge T (2012).  Simian virus 40 (SV40) strains with novel properties generated by replacing the viral enhancer with synthetic oligonucleotides. J Virol. Mar;86(6):3135-42. Abstract

Atanesyan L, Günther V, Dichtl B, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. (2011). Polyglutamine Tracts as Modulators of Transcriptional Activation from Yeast to Mammals. Biol Chem. Jan 1;393(1-2):63-70. Abstract

Günther V, Davis AM, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2011). A conserved cysteine cluster, essential for transcriptional activity, mediates homodimerization of human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). BBA Mol Cell Res Feb;1823(2):404-411 Abstract

Günther V, Waldvogel D, Nosswitz M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2011). Dissection of Drosophila MTF-1 reveals a domain for differential target gene activation upon copper overload vs. copper starvation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. Feb;44(2):404-411. Abstract

Atanesyan L, Günther V, Celniker SE, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2011). Characterization of MtnE, the fifth metallothionein member in Drosophila. J Biol Inorg Chem. Oct;16(7):1047-1056. Abstract

Hua H, Münter L, Harmeier A, Georgiev O, Multhaup G, Schaffner W (2011). Toxicity of Alzheimer's disease-associated Abeta peptide is ameliorated in a Drosophila model by tight control of zinc and copper availability. Biol Chem. Oct;392(10):919-926. Epub 2011 Jul 30. Abstract

Hua H, Günther V, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2011). Distorted copper homeostasis with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin upon chaperone Atox1 deletion in Drosophila. Biometals. Jun;24(3):445-453. Epub 2011 Apr 5. Abstract

Saini N, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2011). The parkin mutant phenotype in the fly is largely rescued by metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1). Mol Cell Biol. May;31(10):2151-2161. Epub 2011 Mar 7. Abstract

Saini N, Oelhafen S, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Büeler H (2010). Extended lifespan of Drosophila parkin mutants through sequestration of redox-active metals enhancement of anti-oxidative pathways. Neurobiol Dis. Oct;40(1):82-92. Epub 2010 May 17. Abstract

Steiger D, Fetchko M, Vardanyan A, Atanesyan L, Steiner K, Turski ML, Thiele DJ, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2010). The Drosophila copper transporter Ctr1C functions in male fertility. J Biol Chem. May 28;285(22):17089-17097. Epub 2010 Mar 29. Abstract

Saini N, Schaffner W (2010). Zinc supplement greatly improves the condition of parkin mutant Drosophila. Biol Chem 391(5):513-18. Abstract

Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Steiger D (2010). Human copper transporter Ctr1 is functional in Drosophila, revealing a high degree of conservation between mammals and insects. J Biol Inorg Chem 15(1):107-13. Abstract

Lindert U, Cramer M, Meuli M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. (2009). Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) activity is regulated by a nonconventional nuclear localization signal and a metal-responsive transactivation domain. Mol Cell Biol 29(23):6283-93. Abstract

Harmeier A, Wozny C, Rost BR, Munter LM, Hua H, Georgiev O, Beyermann M, Hildebrand PW, Weise C, Schaffner W, Schmitz D, Multhaup G (2009). Role of amyloid-beta glycine 33 in oligomerization, toxicity, and neuronal plasticity. J Neurosci 10;29(23):7582-90. Abstract

Balamurugan K, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2009). Mercury and cadmium trigger expression of the copper importer Ctr1B, which enables Drosophila to thrive on heavy metal-loaded food. Biol Chem 390(2):109-13. Abstract

Kappeler M, Kranz E, Woolcock K, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2008). Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 36(21):6907-17. Abstract

Vardanyan A, Atanesyan L, Egli D, Raja SJ, Steinmann-Zwicky M, Renkawitz-Pohl R, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2008). Dumpy-30 family members as determinants of male fertility and interaction partners of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) in Drosophila.BMC Dev Biol 27;8:68. Abstract

Lindert U, Leuzinger L, Steiner K, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (2008). Characterization of metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) from the giant rodent capybara reveals features in common with human as well as with small rodents (mouse, rat). Chem Biodivers 5(8):1485-94. Abstract

Chen X*, Hua H*, Balamurugan K*, Kong X, Zhang L, George GN, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Giedroc DP (2008) "Copper sensing function of Drosophila metal-responsive transcription factor-1 is mediated by a tetranuclear Cu(I) cluster." Nucleic Acids Res. 36(9): 3128-3138 (Epub 2008 Apr 13). *equal contribution Abstract

Takeuchi H, Georgiev O, Fetchko M, Kappeler M, Schaffner W and Egli D (2007) "In vivo construction of transgenes in Drosophila." Genetics 175(4): 2019-2028. Abstract

Balamurugan K, Egli D, Hua H, Rajaram R, Seisenbacher G, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2007) "Copper homeostasis in Drosophila by complex interplay of import, storage and behavioral avoidance." Embo J 26(4): 1035-1044. Abstract

Yepiskoposyan H, Egli D, Fergestad T, Selvaraj A, Treiber C, Multhaup G, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2006) "Transcriptome response to heavy metal stress in Drosophila reveals a new zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc." Nucleic Acids Res 34(17): 4866-4877. Abstract

Balamurugan K and Schaffner W (2006) "Copper homeostasis in eukaryotes: teetering on a tightrope." Biochim Biophys Acta 1763(7): 737-746. Abstract

Egli D, Yepiskoposyan H, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Rajaram R, Simons A, Multhaup G, Mettler S, Vardanyan A, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2006) "A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification. " Mol Cell Biol 26(6): 2286-2296. Abstract

Egli D, Domenech J, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Hua H, Capdevila M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W and Atrian S (2006) "The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification." Genes Cells 11(6): 647-658. Abstract

Wimmer U, Wang Y, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2005) "Two major branches of anti-cadmium defense in the mouse: MTF-1/metallothioneins and glutathione." Nucleic Acids Res 33(18): 5715-5727. Abstract

Cramer M*, Nagy I*, Murphy BJ, Gassmann M, Hottiger MO, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2005) "NF-kappaB contributes to transcription of placenta growth factor and interacts with metal responsive transcription factor-1 in hypoxic human cells." Biol Chem 386(9): 865-872. Abstract (*equal contribution)

Fleischli C, Verhaagh S, Havenga M, Sirena D, Schaffner W, Cattaneo R, Greber UF and Hemmi S (2005) "The Distal Short Consensus Repeats 1 and 2 of the Membrane Cofactor Protein CD46 and Their Distance from the Cell Membrane Determine Productive Entry of Species B Adenovirus Serotype 35." J Virol 79(15): 10013-10022. Abstract

Petrascheck M, Escher D, Mahmoudi T, Verrijzer CP, Schaffner W and Barberis A (2005) "DNA looping induced by a transcriptional enhancer in vivo." Nucleic Acids Res 33(12): 3743-3750. Abstract

Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Yepiskoposyan H, Zhou H, Egli D, Georgiev O, Thiele DJ and Schaffner W (2005) "Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) handles both extremes, copper load and copper starvation, by activating different genes." Genes Dev 19(8):891-896 Abstract

Tamura Y, Maruyama M, Mishima Y, Fujisawa H, Obata M, Kodama Y, Yoshikai Y, Aoyagi Y, Niwa O, Schaffner W and Kominami R (2005) "Predisposition to mouse thymic lymphomas in response to ionizing radiation depends on variant alleles encoding metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (Mtf-1)." Oncogene 24(3): 399-406. Abstract

Haroon ZA, Amin K, Lichtlen P, Sato B, Huynh NT, Wang Z, Schaffner W and Murphy BJ (2004) "Loss of metal transcription factor-1 suppresses tumor growth through enhanced matrix deposition." Faseb J 18(11):1176-1184 Abstract

Wang Y, Lorenzi I, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2004) "Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) selects different types of metal response elements at low vs. high zinc concentration." Biol Chem 385(7):623-632 Abstract
Elected "Paper of the Year 2004" by Biological Chemistry

Wang Y, Wimmer U, Lichtlen P, Inderbitzin D, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Hunziker L, Stallmach T, Forrer R, Rulicke T, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2004) "Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is essential for embryonic liver development and heavy metal detoxification in the adult liver." Faseb J 18(10):1071-1079 Abstract

Egli D, Hafen E and Schaffner W (2004) "An efficient method to generate chromosomal rearrangements by targeted DNA double-strand breaks in Drosophila melanogaster." Genome Res 14(7):1382-1393 Abstract

Balamurugan K, Egli D, Selvaraj A, Zhang B, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2004) "Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) and heavy metal stress response in Drosophila and mammalian cells: a functional comparison." Biol Chem 385(7):597-603 Abstract

Chen X, Zhang B, Harmon PM, Schaffner W, Peterson DO and Giedroc DP (2004) "A novel cysteine cluster in human metal-responsive transcription factor 1 is required for heavy metal-induced transcriptional activation in vivo." J Biol Chem 279(6):4515-4522 Abstract

Zhang B, Georgiev O, Hagmann M, Gunes C, Cramer M, Faller P, Vasak M and Schaffner W (2003) "Activity of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 by toxic heavy metals and H2O2 in vitro is modulated by metallothionein." Mol Cell Biol 23(23):8471-8485 Abstract

Egli D, Selvaraj A, Yepiskoposyan H, Zhang B, Hafen E, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2003) "Knockout of 'metal-responsive transcription factor' MTF-1 in Drosophila by homologous recombination reveals its central role in heavy metal homeostasis." Embo J 22(1):100-108 Abstract

Saydam N, Steiner F, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2003) "Heat and Heavy Metal Stress Synergize to Mediate Transcriptional Hyperactivation by Metal-responsive Transcription Factor MTF-1." J Biol Chem 278(34):31879-31883 Abstract

Peter I, Graf C, Dummer R, Schaffner W, Greber UF and Hemmi S (2003) "A novel attenuated replication-competent adenovirus for melanoma therapy." Gene Ther 10(7):530-539 Abstract

Saydam N, Adams TK, Steiner F, Schaffner W and Freedman JH (2002) "Regulation of metallothionein transcription by the metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1: identification of signal transduction cascades that control metal-inducible transcription." J Biol Chem 277(23): 20438-20445. Abstract

Stamminger T, Gstaiger M, Weinzierl K, Lorz K, Winkler M and Schaffner W (2002) "Open reading frame UL26 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a novel tegument protein that contains a strong transcriptional activation domain." J Virol 76(10): 4836-4847. Abstract

Schaffner W (2001) ENHANCER. In: Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, J. Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 5 volume set.

Lichtlen P and Schaffner W (2001) "The "metal transcription factor" MTF-1: biological facts and medical implications." Swiss Med Wkly 131(45-46): 647-652. Abstract

Lichtlen P and Schaffner W (2001) "Putting its fingers on stressful situations: the heavy metal-regulatory transcription factor MTF-1." Bioessays 23(11): 1010-1017. Abstract

Zhang B, Egli D, Georgiev O and Schaffner W (2001) "The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals." Mol. Cell. Biol, 21, 4505-4514. Abstract, MCB

Saydam N, Georgiev O, Nakano M, Greber UF and Schaffner W (2001) "Nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 is regulated by diverse stress signals." J Biol Chem 276(27): 25487-25495. Abstract, JBC

Lichtlen P, Wang Y, Belser T, Georgiev O, Certa U, Sack R and Schaffner W (2001) "Target gene search for the metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1." Nucleic Acids Research 29(7): 1514-1523. Abstract, NAR

Green CJ*, Lichtlen P*, Huynh NT, Yanovsky M, Laderoute KR, Schaffner W and Murphy BJ, (2001) "Placenta Growth Factor Gene Expression is Induced by Hypoxia in Fibroblasts: A Central Role for Metal Transcription Factor-1." (*equal contribution) Cancer Research 61: 2696-2703. Abstract, Cancer Res

Andrews GK, Lee DK, Ravindra R, Lichtlen P, Sirito M, Sawadogo M and Schaffner W (2001) "The transcription factors MTF-1 and USF1 cooperate to regulate mouse metallothionein-I expression in response to the essential metal zinc in visceral endoderm cells during early development." EMBO J. 20: 1114-1122. Abstract, EMBO J

Sok J, Calfon M, Lu J, Lichtlen P, Clark SG and Ron D (2001) "Arsenite-inducible RNA-associated protein (AIRAP) protects cells from arsenite toxicity." Cell Stress & Chaperones 6: 6-15. (publication with group member)

Auf der Maur, A., Belser, T., Wang, Y., Günes, C., Lichtlen, P., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. (2000). Characterization of the mouse gene for the heavy metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1. Cell Stress & Chaperones 5, 196-206. Abstract

Schaffner, W. (2000). Wie werden unsere Gene ein- und ausgeschaltet? Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften/Westdeutscher Verlag, pp 7-14.

Escher, D., Bodmer-Glavas, M., Barberis, A. and Schaffner, W. (2000). Conservation of glutamine-rich transactivation function between yeast and humans. Mol. Cell Biol. 20, 2774-2782. Abstract, MCB

Schaffner, W. (1999). Shoulder Hopping on Giants (Editorial). Biol. Chem 380, 109-110.

Lichtlen, P., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W., Aguzzi, A. and Brandner, S. (1999). The heavy metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is not required for neural differentiation. Biol. Chem. 380, 711-715. Abstract

Schaffner, W. (1999). ENHANCER. In: Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, pp 823-828. Creighton, A.E., ed., J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-15302-8

Auf der Maur, A., Belser, T., Elgar, G., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1999). Characterization of the transcription factor MTF-1 from the Japanese pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) reveals evolutionary conservation of heavy metal stress response. Biol. Chem. 380, 175-185. Abstract

Ahmed S., Clay, O.K. and Schaffner, W. (1999). Proto-oncogenes, unlike "harmless" genes, tend to be dispersed in the human genome: Selection against out-of-register recombination? (Editorial) Biol. Chem. 380, 3-5.

Stark, M.R., Escher, D. and Johnson, A.D. (1999). A trans-acting peptide activates the yeast a1 repressor by raising its DNA-binding affinity. EMBO J. 18, 1621-1629. (publication with group member)

Nayler, O., Strätling, W., Bourquin, J.-P., Stagljar, I., Lindemann, L., Jasper, H., Hartmann, A., Fackelmayer, F.O., Ullrich, A., and Stamm, S. (1998). SAF-B protein couples transcription and pre-mRNA splicing to SAR/MAR elements. Nucl. Acids Res. 15, 3542-3549. (publication with group members)

Matsuo, K., Silke, J., Georgiev, O., Marti. P., Giovannini, N. and Rungger, D. (1998). An embryonic demethylation mechanism involving binding of transcription factors to replicating DNA. EMBO J. 17, 1446-1453. (publication with group members)

W. Schaffner. (1998). EMBO workshop on "gene expression under stress conditions" in Carcavelos-Lisbon, Portugal (Conference report). Biol. Chem. 379. 87-92.

Günes, C., Heuchel, R., Georgiev, O., Müller, K.-H., Lichtlen, P., Blüthmann, H., Marino, S., Aguzzi, A. and Schaffner, W. (1998). Embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in mice lacking the metal-responsive transcriptional activator MTF-1. EMBO J.,17(10), 2846-2854. Abstract

M. Hagmann, R. Bruggmann, L. Xue, O. Georgiev, W. Schaffner, D. Rungger, P. Spaniol and T. Gerster. (1998). Homologous recombination and DNA-end joining reactions in zygotes and early embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Drosophila melanogaster [see comments]. Biological Chemistry. 379. 673-81. Abstract

Rother, K.I., Clay, O.K., Bourquin, J.P., Silke, J., and Schaffner, W. (1997). Long non-stop reading frames on the antisense strand of heat shock protein 70 genes and prion protein (PRP) genes are conserved between species. Biol. Chem. 378:1521-1530. Abstract

Schaffner W. (1997) Granny’s remedy explained at the molecular level: helenalin inhibits NF-kB. (Editorial) Biol. Chem. 378, 935.

Escher, D. and Schaffner, W. (1997). W. Gene activation at a distance and telomeric silencing are not affected by yeast histone H1. Mol. Gen. Genetics 256:456-461. Abstract

Moosmann, P., Georgiev, O., Thiesen, H.J., Hagmann, M., Schaffner, W. (1997). Silencing of RNA polymerases II and III-dependent transcription by the KRAB protein domain of KOX1, a Kruppel-type zinc finger factor. Biol. Chem. 378, 669-677. Abstract

Hagmann, M., Georgiev, O., and Schaffner, W. (1997). The VP16 paradox: Herpes Simplex Virus VP16 contains a long-range activation domain but within the natural multiprotein complex activates only from promoter-proximal positions. J. Virol. 71, 5952-5962. Abstract

Bourquin, J.-P., Stagljar, I., Meier, P., Mossmann, P., Silke, J., Baechi, T., Georgiev, O., and Schaffner, W. (1997). A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 2055-2061. Abstract - Genbank: X99717

Tanner, S., Stagljar, I., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W., and Bourquin, J.-P. (1997). A novel SR-related protein specifically interacts with the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II through a conserved interaction domain. Biol. Chem. 378, 565-571. Abstract

Schibler U. and Schaffner W. (1996) Biology: An expanding universe - or is convergence to a few principles around the corner? (Editorial) Biol. Chem. 377, 763-764.

Moosmann, P., Georgiev, O., Le Douarin, B., Bourquin, J.P., and Schaffner, W. (1996). Transcriptional repression by RING finger protein TIF1 beta that interacts with the KRAB repressor domain of KOX1. Nucleic Acids Res 1996 15(24): 4859-4867. Abstract - Genbank: X97548

Nielsen PJ, Georgiev O, Lorenz B and Schaffner W (1996) "B lymphocytes are impaired in mice lacking the transcriptional co-activator Bob1/OCA-B/OBF1." Eur J Immunol 26(12):3214-3218 Abstract

Escher, D. and Schaffner, W. (1996). Improved "activator trap" method for the isolation of transcriptional activation domains from random DNA fragments. Biotechniques 21. 848-854. Abstract

Gstaiger, M., Hovens, C., Georgiev, O., Knoepfel, L., and Schaffner, W. (1996). BZLF1 (ZEBRA, Zta) protein of Epstein-Barr virus selected in a yeast one-hybrid system by binding to a consensus site in the IgH intronic enhancer: a role in immunoglobulin expression? Biol Chem 377: 669-673. Abstract

Gstaiger, M., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1996). Fine mapping of protein interaction surfaces with a PCR-based mutagenesis screen in yeast. Trends Genet. 12, 393-394. PubMed

Gstaiger, M., Georgiev, O., Vanleeuwen, H., Vandervliet, P. and Schaffner, W. (1996). The B cell coactivator Bob1 shows DNA sequence-dependent complex formation with Oct-1/Oct-2 factors, leading to differential promoter activation. EMBO J. 15, 2781-2790. Abstract

Hug, M., Silke, J., Georgiev, O., Rusconi, S., Schaffner, W. and Matsuo, K. (1996). Transcriptional repression by methylation - cooperativity between a CpG cluster in the promoter and remote CpG-rich regions. FEBS Lett. 379, 251-254. Abstract

Georgiev, O., Bourquin, J. P., Gstaiger, M., Knoepfel, L., Schaffner, W. and Hovens, C. (1996). Two versatile eukaryotic expression vectors permitting epitope tagging, radiolabelling, and nuclear localisation of expressed proteins. Gene 168, 165-167. Abstract

Knoepfel, L., Georgiev, O., Nielsen, P. and Schaffner, W. (1996). Cloning and characterization of the murine B-cell specific transcriptional coactivator Bob1. Biol. Chem. 377, 139-145. Abstract - Genbank: 2137830

Hagmann, M., Adlkofer, K., Pfeiffer, P., Bruggmann, R., Georgiev, O., Rungger, D. and Schaffner, W. (1996). Dramatic changes in the ratio of homologous recombination to nonhomologous DNA-end joining in oocytes and early embryos of Xenopus laevis. Biol. Chem. 377, 239-250. Abstract

Radtke, F., Hug, M., Georgiev, O., Matsuo, K. and Schaffner, W. (1996). Differential sensitivity of zinc finger transcription factors MTF-1, SP1 and Krox-20 to CpG methylation of their binding sites. Biol. Chem. 377, 47-56. Abstract

Stagljar I, Bourquin JP and Schaffner W (1996) "Use of the two-hybrid system and random sonicated DNA to identify the interaction domain of a protein." Biotechniques 21(3):430-432 Abstract

Douville, P., Hagmann, M., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1995). Positive and negative regulation at the herpes simplex virus ICP4 and ICP0 TAATGARAT motifs. Virology 207, 107-16.

Clay, O., Schaffner, W. and Matsuo, K. (1995). Periodicity of eight nucleotides in purine distribution around human genomic CpG dinucleotides. Somatic Cell Mol. Genet. 21, 91-98.

Gstaiger, M., Knoepfel, L., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Hovens, C. M. (1995). A B-cell coactivator of octamer-binding transcription factors. Nature 373, 360-2. Abstract - Genbank: X83504

Gerber, H. P., Hagmann, M., Seipel, K., Georgiev, O., West, M. A., Litingtung, Y., Schaffner, W. and Corden, J. L. (1995). RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain required for enhancer-driven transcription. Nature 374, 660-2.

Gramatikoff, K., Schaffner, W. and Georgiev, O. (1995). The leucine zipper of c-Jun binds to ribosomal protein L18a: a role in Jun protein regulation? Biol. Chem. 376, 321-5.

Hottiger, M., Gramatikoff, K., Georgiev, O., Chaponnier, C., Schaffner, W. and Hübscher, U. (1995). The large subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase interacts with beta-actin. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 736-641.

Silke, J., Rother, K. I., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Matsuo, K. (1995). Complex demethylation patterns at Sp1 binding sites in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. FEBS Lett. 370, 170-174.

Hagmann, M., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Douville, P. (1995). Transcription factors interacting with herpes simplex virus alpha gene promoters in sensory neurons. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 4978-4985.

Rother, K. I., Silke, J., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Matsuo, K. (1995). Influence of DNA sequence and methylation status on bisulfite conversion of cytosine residues. Anal. Biochem. 231, 263-265.

Noyer-Weidner, M. and Schaffner, W. (1995). Felix Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) a pioneer of biochemistry and molecular biology [editorial]. Biol. Chem. 376, 447-8.

Müller, H. P., Brugnera, E., Georgiev, O., Badzong, M., Müller, K. H. and Schaffner, W. (1995). Analysis of the heavy metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1 from human and mouse. Somatic Cell Mol. Genet. 21, 289-297.

Künzler, P., Matsuo, K. and Schaffner, W. (1995). Pathological, physiological, and evolutionary aspects of short unstable DNA repeats in the human genome. [Review]. Biol. Chem. 376, 201-11.

Hergersberg, M., Matsuo, K., Gassmann, M., Schaffner, W., Luscher, B., Rulicke, T. and Aguzzi, A. (1995). Tissue-specific expression of a FMR1/beta-galactosidase fusion gene in transgenic mice. Hum. Mol. Genet. 4, 359-66.

Heuchel, R., Radtke, F. and Schaffner, W. (1995) Transcriptional regulation by heavy metals, exemplified at the metallothionein genes. In: Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 1, pp. 206-240, Baeuerle, P.A., ed., Birkhäuser, Boston.

Radtke, F., Georgiev, O., Müller, H. P., Brugnera, E. and Schaffner, W. (1995). Functional domains of the heavy metal-responsive transcription regulator MTF-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2277-86.

Matsuo, K., Silke, J., Gramatikoff, K. and Schaffner, W. (1994). The CpG-specific methylase SssI has topoisomerase activity in the presence of Mg2+. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5354-9.

Seipel, K., Georgiev, O., Gerber, H. P. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Basal components of the transcription apparatus (RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein) contain activation domains: is the repetitive C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II a "portable enhancer domain"? Mol. Reprod. Dev. 39, 215-25.

Gramatikoff, K., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Direct interaction rescue, a novel filamentous phage technique to study protein-protein interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5761-2.

Matsuo, K., Clay, O., Kunzler, P., Georgiev, O., Urbanek, P. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Short introns interrupting the Oct-2 POU domain may prevent recombination between POU family genes without interfering with potential POU domain 'shuffling' in evolution. Biol. Chem. 375, 675-683.

Xu, L., Rungger, D., Georgiev, O., Seipel, K. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Different potential of cellular and viral activators of transcription revealed in oocytes and early embryos of Xenopus laevis. Biol. Chem. 375, 105-12.

Künzler, M., Braus, G. H., Georgiev, O., Seipel, K. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Functional differences between mammalian transcription activation domains at the yeast GAL1 promoter. EMBO J. 13, 641-5.

Gerber, H. P., Seipel, K., Georgiev, O., Hofferer, M., Hug, M., Rusconi, S. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Transcriptional activation modulated by homopolymeric glutamine and proline stretches. Science 263, 808-11.

Gstaiger, M. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Strong transcriptional activators isolated from viral DNA by the 'activator trap', a novel selection system in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 4031-8.

Brugnera, E., Georgiev, O., Radtke, F., Heuchel, R., Baker, E., Sutherland, G. R. and Schaffner, W. (1994). Cloning, chromosomal mapping and characterization of the human metal-regulatory transcription factor MTF-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3167-73. Abstract

Pult, I., Sajantila, A., Simanainen, J., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Pääbo, S. (1994). Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Switzerland reveal striking homogeneity of European populations. Biol. Chem. 375, 837-40.

Handt, O., Richards, M., Trommsdorff, M., Kilger, C., Simanainen, J., Georgiev, O., Bauer, K., Stone, A., Hedges, R., Schaffner, W., Utermann, G., Sykes, B. and Pääbo, S. (1994). Molecular genetic analyses of the Tyrolean Ice Man. Science 264, 1775-1778.

Heuchel, R., Radtke, F., Georgiev, O., Stark, G., Aguet, M. and Schaffner, W. (1994). The transcription factor MTF-1 is essential for basal and heavy metal-induced metallothionein gene expression. EMBO J. 13, 2870-5.

Seipel, K., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1994). A minimal transcription activation domain consisting of a specific array of aspartic acid and leucine residues. Biol. Chem. 375, 463-70.

Schreiber, E., Tobler, A., Malipiero, U., Schaffner, W. and Fontana, A. (1993). cDNA cloning of human N-Oct3, a nervous-system specific POU domain transcription factor binding to the octamer DNA motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 253-8.

Rigoni, P., Xu, L., Harshman, K., Schaffner, W. and Arnosti, D. N. (1993). Conserved cysteine residues of Oct-2 POU domain confer sensitivity to oxidation but are dispensable for sequence-specific DNA binding. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1173, 141-6.

Arnosti, D. N., Merino, A., Reinberg, D. and Schaffner, W. (1993). Oct-2 facilitates functional preinitiation complex assembly and is continuously required at the promoter for multiple rounds of transcription. EMBO J. 12, 157-66.

Radtke, F., Heuchel, R., Georgiev, O., Hergersberg, M., Gariglio, M., Dembic, Z. and Schaffner, W. (1993). Cloned transcription factor MTF-1 activates the mouse metallothionein I promoter. EMBO J. 12, 1355-62.

Arnosti, D. N., Preston, C. M., Hagmann, M., Schaffner, W., Hope, R. G., Laughlan, G. and Luisi, B. F. (1993). Specific transcriptional activation in vitro by the herpes simplex virus protein VP16. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 5570-6.

Seipel, K., Georgiev, O., Gerber, H. P. and Schaffner, W. (1993). C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA-polymerase II and N-terminal segment of the human TATA binding protein (TBP) can mediate remote and proximal transcriptional activation, respectively. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 5609-15.

Matsuo, K., Clay, O., Takahashi, T., Silke, J. and Schaffner, W. (1993). Evidence for erosion of mouse CpG islands during mammalian evolution. Somatic Cell Mol. Genet. 19, 543-55.

Xu, L., Schaffner, W. and Rungger, D. (1993). Transcriptional activation by recombinant GAL4-VP16 in the Xenopus oocyte. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 2775.

Seipel, K., Georgiev, O., Arnosti, D. N. & Schaffner, W. (1993) Mammalian transcription factors and their interaction with enhancers and promoters. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Erythropoietin Workshop 1992, Karger, Basel.

Brugnera, E., Xu, L., Schaffner, W. & Arnosti D. N. (1992) POU specific domain of Oct-2 factor confers "octamer" motif DNA binding specificity on heterologous Antennapedia homeodomain. FEBS Letters 314, 361-365.

Müller, H.P. & Schaffner, W. (1992) Regulation of Gene Activity in Eukaryotes. Chapter 16 in:Essentials of Molecular Biology, pp. 359 - 389, D. Freifelder and G. Malacinski eds., Jones & Bartlett Publ. Boston.

Seipel, K., Georgiev, O. & Schaffner, W. (1992) Different activation domains stimulate transcription from remote ("enhancer") and proximal ("promoter") positions. EMBO J. 11, 4961-4968.

Gerber, H.-P., Georgiev, O., Harshman, K. & Schaffner, W. (1992) In vitro transcription complementation assay with miniextracts of transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Nucl. Acids Res. 20, 5855-5856.

Schaffner, W. (1991) In: Mechanisms of B cell neoplasia. The Basel Institute for Immunology, pp. 251-259, F. Melchers and M. Potter eds., Roche, Basel.

Kemler, I., Bucher, E., Seipel, K., Müller-Immerglück, M. M. & Schaffner, W. (1991) Immunoglobulin light chain promoters, but not heavy chain promoters, require elevated level of "octamer" transcription factors for maximal expression. In: Gene Expression, The Second International Mochida Memorial Symposium 1990, pp. 101-118, K. Matsubara ed., Shobunsha Co., Tokyo.

Xu, L., Thali, M. & Schaffner, W. (1991) Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription. Nucl. Acids. Res. 19, 6699-6704.

Czank, A., Häuselmann, R., Page, A. W., Leonhardt, H., Bestor, T. H., Schaffner, W. & Hergersberg, M. (1991) Expression of a cloned murine DNA methyltransferase in mammalian cells. Gene 109, 259-263.

Yang, J., Müller-Immerglück, M.M., Seipel, K., Janson, L., Westin, G., Schaffner, W. & Pettersson, U. (1991) Both Oct-1 and Oct-2A contain domains which can activate the ubiquitously expressed U2 snRNA genes. EMBO J. 10, 2291-2296.

Matthias, P., Müller, M.M. & Schaffner, W. (1991) Cloning of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins by screening l cDNA expression libraries with radiolabeled binding site probes. In: A Laboratory Guide for in vitro Studies of Protein-DNA Interactions. J.P. Jost, H.P. Saluz eds., Birkhäuser Press, 233-244.

Zeng, J., Heuchel, R., Schaffner, W. & Kägi, J.H.R. (1991) Thionein (apometallothionein) can modulate DNA binding and transcription activation by zinc finger containing factor Sp1. FEBS Letters 279, 310-312.

Kermekchiev, M., Pettersson, M., Matthias, P. & Schaffner, W. (1991) Every enhancer works with every promoter for all the combinations tested: Could new regulatory pathways evolve by enhancer shuffling? Gene Expression 1, 71-81.

Kemler, I., Bucher, E., Seipel, K., Müller-Immerglück, M.M. & Schaffner, W. (1991) Promoters with the octamer DNA motif (ATGCAAAT) can be ubiquitous or cell type-specific depending on binding affinity of the octamer site and Oct-factor concentration. Nucl Acids Res. 19, 237-242.

Müller, H.P., Matthias, P. & Schaffner, W. (1990) A transcriptional terminator between enhancer and promoter does not affect remote transcriptional control. Somatic Cell Mol.Gen. 16, 351-360

Müller, H.P. & Schaffner, W. (1990) Transcriptional enhancers can act in trans. Trends Genet. 6, 300-304

Schreiber, E., Harshman, K., Kemler, I., Malipiero, U., Schaffner, W. & Fontana, A. (1990) Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express novel octamer-DNA binding proteins distinct from the ubiquitous Oct-1 and B cell type Oct-2 proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 5495-5503

Thali, M., Rusconi, S. & Schaffner, W. (1990) Immediate early protein of pseudorabies virus is a general transactivator but stimulates only suboptimally utilized promoters: A clue to specificity? J.Mol.Biol. 215, 301-311

Pettersson, M. & Schaffner, W. (1990) Synergistic activation of transcription by multiple binding sites for NF-kappa B even in absence of co-operative factor binding to DNA. J.Mol.Biol. 214, 373-380

Müller-Immerglück, M.M., Schaffner, W. & Matthias, P. (1990) Transcription factor Oct-2A contains functionally redundant activating domains and works selectively from a promoter but not from a remote enhancer position in non-lymphoid (HeLa) cells. EMBO J. 9, 1625-1634

Kemler, I. & Schaffner, W. (1990) Octamer transcription factors and the cell type-specificity of immunoglobulin gene expression. FASEB J. 4, 1444-1449

Schatt, M., Rusconi, S. & Schaffner, W. (1990) A single DNA-binding transcription factor is sufficient for activation from a distant enhancer and/or from a promoter position. EMBO J. 9, 481-487

Elmaleh, N., Matthias, P. & Schaffner, W. (1990) A factor known to bind to the endogenous Ig heavy chain enhancer only in lymphocytes is a ubiquitously active transcription factor. Eur.J.Biochem. 187, 507-513

Heuchel, R., Matthias, P. & Schaffner, W. (1989) Two closely spaced promoters are equally activated by a remote enhancer: evidence against a scanning model for enhancer action. Nucleic Acids Res. 17, 8931-8947

Schreiber, E. & Schaffner, W. (1989) Long-range activation of transcription by SV40 enhancer is affected by "inhibitory" or "permissive" DNA sequences between enhancer and promoter. Somatic Cell & Mol.Gen. 15, 591-603

Thomas, R.H., Schaffner, W., Wilson, A.C. & Pääbo, S. (1989) DNA phylogeny of the extinct marsupial wolf. Nature 340, 465-467

Müller, H.P., Sogo, J.M. & Schaffner, W. (1989) An enhancer stimulates transcription in trans when attached to the promoter via a protein bridge. Cell 58, 767-777

Kemler, I, Schreiber, E., Müller, M.M., Matthias, P. & Schaffner, W. (1989) Octamer transcription factors bind to two different sequence motifs of the immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter. EMBO J. 8, 2001-2008

Iguchi-Ariga, S M.M. & Schaffner, W. (1989) CpG methylation of the cAMP-responsive enhancer/promoter sequence TGACGTCA abolishes specific factor binding as well as transcriptional activation. Genes & Dev. 3, 612-619

Schreiber, E., Müller, M.M., Schaffner, W. & Matthias, P. (1989) Octamer transcription factors mediate B-cell specific expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. In: Tissue-specific Gene Expression. Ed. R. Renkawitz, Verlag Chemie Weinheim, pp.33-54

Schaffner, W. (1989) How do different transcription factors binding the same DNA sequence sort out their jobs? Trends Genet. 5, 37-39

Schaffner, W. (1988) A hit-and-run mechanism for transcriptional activation? Nature 336, 427-428

Schreiber, E., Matthias, P., Müller, M.M. & Schaffner, W. (1988) Identification of a novel lymphoid specific octamer binding protein (OTF-2B) by proteolytic clipping bandshift assay (PCBA) EMBO J. 7, 4221-4229

Müller, M.M., Ruppert, S., Schaffner, W. & Matthias, P. (1988b) A cloned octamer transcription factor stimulates transcription from lymphoid-specific promoters in non-B cells. Nature 336, 544-551

Müller, M.M., Gerster, T. & Schaffner, W. (1988a) Enhancer sequences and the regulation of gene transcription. Eur.J.Biochem. 176, 485-495

Westin, G. & Schaffner, W. (1988) A zinc-responsive factor interacts with a metal-regulated enhancer element (MRE) of the mouse metallothionein-I gene. EMBO J. 7, 3763-3770

Severne, Y., Wieland, S., Schaffner, W. & Rusconi S. (1988) Metal binding "finger" structures in the glucocorticoid receptor defined by site-directed mutagenesis. EMBO J. 7, 2503-2508

Höller, M., Westin, G., Jiricny, J. & Schaffner, W. (1988) Sp1 transcription factor binds DNA and activates transcription even when the binding site is CpG methylated. Genes & Dev. 2, 1127-1135

Westin, G. & Schaffner, W. (1988) Heavy metal ions in transcription factors from HeLa cells: Sp1, but not octamer transcription factor requires zinc for DNA binding and for activator function. Nucl.Acids Res. 16, 5771-5781

Schaffner, G., Schirm, S., Müller, B., Weber, F. & Schaffner, W. (1988) Redundancy of information in enhancers as a principle of mammalian transcription control. J.Mol.Biol. 201, 81-90

Matthias, P., Gerster, T., Thali, M., Bohmann, D., Keller, W., Zürcher, W., Jiricny, J. & Schaffner, W. (1987) Determinants of cell type specificity within the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer. In: Viral Carcinogenesis, eds. Kjeldgaard, J., Forchhammer, J. (Munksgaard, Copenhagen) Alfred Benzon Symp. 24, 36-52

Pettersson, M. & Schaffner, W. (1987). A purine-rich DNA sequence motif present in SV40 and lymphotropic papovavirus binds a lymphoid-specific factor and contributes to enhancer activity in lymphoid cells. Genes & Development 1, 962-972

Westin, G., Gerster, T., Müller, M.M., Schaffner, G. & Schaffner, W. (1987). OVEC, a versatile system to study transcription in mammalian cells and cell-free extracts. Nucl.Acids Res. 15, 6787-6798

Gerster, T., Matthias, P., Thali, M., Jiricny, J. & Schaffner, W. (1987). Cell type-specificity elements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer. EMBO J. 6, 1323-1330

Schirm, S. Jiricny, J. & Schaffner, W. (1987) The SV40 enhancer can be dissected into multiple segments, each with a different cell type specificity. Genes and Development 1, 65-74

Matthias, P., Gerster, T., Bohmann, D. & Schaffner, W. (1987). Cell-type specificity of transcription: The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer as a model system In: Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology 1; Eckstein, F., Lilley, D.M.J. (eds.) (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg), pp.221-240

Serfling, E. & Schaffner, W. (1987) Inducible and constitutive sequence elements in the enhancer of the mouse metallthionein-I gene. Experientia Suppl. 52, 415-422, Birkhäuser Verlag Basel

Kretsovali, A., Müller, M.M., Weber, F., Marcaud, L., Farache, G., Schreiber, E., Schaffner, W. & Scherrer, K. (1987) A transcriptional enhancer located between adult ?-globin and embryonic epsilon-globin genes in chicken and duck. Gene 58, 167-175

Pääbo, S., Weber, F., Nilsson, T., Schaffner, W. & Peterson, P.A. (1986). Structural and functional dissection of an MHC class I antigen-binding adenovirus glycoprotein. EMBO J. 5, 1921-1927

Gerster, T., Picard, D. & Schaffner, W. (1986) During B-cell differentiation both enhancer activity and transcription rate of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes are high before mRNA accumulation. Cell 45, 45-52

Klein, S., Gerster, T., Picard, D., Radbruch, A. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Evidence for transient requirement of the IgH enhancer. Nucl.Acids Res. 13, 8901-8912

Serfling, E., Lübbe, A., Dorsch-Häsler, K. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Metal-dependent SV40 viruses containing inducible enhancers from upstream region of metallothionein genes. EMBO J. 4, 3851-3859

Dorsch-Häsler, K., Keil, G.M., Weber, F., Jasin, M., Schaffner, W. & Koszinowski, U.H. (1985) A long and complex enhancer activates transcription of the gene coding for the highly abundant immediate early mRNA in murine cytomegalovirus. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 82, 8325-8329

Jasin, M., de Villiers, J., Weber, F. & Schaffner, W. (1985) High frequency of homologous recombination in mammalian cells between endogenous and introduced SV40 genomes. Cell 43, 695-703

Tognoni, A., Cattaneo, R., Serfling, E. & Schaffner, W. (1985) A novel expression selection approach allows precise mapping of the hepatitis B virus enhancer. Nucl.Acids Res. 13, 7457-7472

Picard, D. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Cell-type preference of immunoglobulin kappa and lambda gene promoters. EMBO J. 4, 2831-2838

Schirm, S., Weber, F., Schaffner, W. & Fleckenstein, B. (1985) A transcription enhancer in the Herpesvirus saimiri genome. EMBO J. 4, 2669-2674

Serfling, E., Jasin, M. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Enhancers and eukaryotic gene transcription. Trends in Genetics 1, 224-230

Boshart, M., Weber, F., Jahn, G., Dorsch-Häsler, K., Fleckenstein, B. & Schaffner, W. (1985) A very strong enhancer is located upstream of an immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus. Cell 41, 521-530

Weber, F. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Simian virus 40 enhancer increases RNA polymerase density within the linked gene. Nature 315, 75-77

Weber, F. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Enhancer activity correlates with the oncogenic potential of avian retroviruses. EMBO J. 4, 949-956

Gerster, T. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Transcription enhancers. In: Hormones and Cell Regulation 9, Ed. Dumont, J.E. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 69-82

Lübbe, A. & Schaffner, W. (1985) Tissue-specific gene expression. Trends in Neurosci. 8, 100-104

de Villiers, J., Schaffner, W., Tyndall, C., Lupton, S. & Kamen R. (1984) Polyoma virus DNA replication requires an enhancer. Nature 312, 242-246

Weber, F., de Villiers, J. & Schaffner, W. (1984) An SV40 "enhancer trap" incorporates exogenous enhancers or generates enhancers from its own sequences. Cell 36, 983-992

Picard, D. & Schaffner, W. (1984) Unrearranged immunoglobulin variable region is transcribed in k-producing myelomas. EMBO J. 3, 3031-3035

Picard, D. & Schaffner, W. (1984) A lymphocyte-specific enhancer in the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene. Nature 307, 80-82

de Villiers, J. & Schaffner, W. (1983) Transcriptional "enhancers" from papovariruses as components of eukaryotic expression vectors. In: Techniques in the Life Sciences, (B5) Nucleic Acid Biochemistry, Ed. Flavell, R.A. Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland, Ltd. 1-20

Banerji, J., Olson, L. & Schaffner, W. (1983) A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Cell 33, 729-740

Pääbo, S., Weber, F., Kämpe, O., Schaffner, W. & Peterson, P.A. (1983) Association between transplantation antigens and a viral membrane protein synthesized from a mammalian expression vector. Cell 35, 445-453

Banerji, J. & Schaffner, W. (1983) Transient expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells . In: Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods, Vol.5, Eds.Setlow, J.K. and Hollaender, A. Plenum Press, N.Y. & London, 19-32

Picard, D. & Schaffner, W. (1983) Correct transcription of a cloned mouse immunoglobulin gene in vivo. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 80, 417-421

de Villiers, J., Olson, L., Banerji, J. & Schaffner, W. (1983) Analysis of the transcriptional "enhancer" effect. Cold Spring Harbor Symp.Quant.Biol. XLVII, pp. 911-919

de Villiers, J., Olson, L., Tyndall, C.& Schaffner, W. (1982) Transcriptional "enhancers" from SV40 and polyoma virus show a cell type preference. Nucl.Acids Res. 10, 7965-7976

de Villiers, J. & Schaffner, W. (1981) A small segment of polyoma virus DNA enhances the expression of a cloned b-globin gene over a distance of 1400 bp. Nucl.Acids Res. 9, 6251-6264

Banerji, J., Rusconi, S. & Schaffner, W. (1981) Expression of a b-globin gene is enhanced by remote SV40 sequences. Cell 27, 299-308

Rusconi, S. & Schaffner, W. (1981) Transformation of frog embryos with a rabbit b-globin gene. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 78, 5051-5055

Schaffner, W. (1980) Direct transfer of cloned genes from bacteria to mammalian cells. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 77, 2163-2167

Schaffner, W., Topp, W. & Botchan, M. (1979) Movement of foreign DNA into and out of somatic cell chromosomes by linkage to SV40. In: Specific Eukaryotic Genes, eds. Engberg, J., Klenow, H. & Leick, V. (Munksgaard, Copenhagen), Alfred Benzon Symp. 13, 191-203

Schaffner, W., Kunz, G., Daetwyler, H., Telford, J., Smith, H.O. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1978) Genes and spacers of cloned sea urchin histone DNA analyzed by sequencing. Cell 14, 655-671

Müller, H.K., Wittek, R., Schaffner, W., Schümperli, D., Menna, A. & Wyler, R. (1977) Comparison of five poxvirus genomes by analysis with restriction endonucleases HindIII, BamI and EcoRI. J.Gen.Virol. 38, 135-147

Birnstiel, M.L., Schaffner, W. & Smith, H.O. (1977) DNA sequences coding for the H2B histone of Psammechinus miliaris. Nature 266, 603-607

Telford, J., Boseley, P., Schaffner, W. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1977) Novel screening procedure for recombinant plasmids. Science 195, 391-393

Schaffner, W., Rüegg, K.J. & Weissmann, C. (1977) Nanovariant RNAs: Nucleotide sequence and interaction with bacteriophage Qb replicase. J.Mol.Biol. 117, 877-907

Schaffner, W. (1977) The nanovariant RNAs: Nucleotide sequence and interaction with Qb replicase. Ph.D. thesis, University of Zürich, Switzerland. (Nanovariant RNA - length 91 nucleotides - was listed for several years in the Guinness Book of Records as the smallest known replicating molecule).

Portmann, R., Schaffner, W. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1976) Partial denaturation mapping of cloned histone DNA from the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Nature 264, 31-34

Clarkson, S.G., Smith, H.O., Schaffner, W., Gross, K. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1976) Integration of eukaryotic genes for 5S RNA and histone proteins into a phage lambda receptor. Nucl.Acids Res. 3, 2617-2632

Gross, K., Schaffner, W., Telford, J. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1976) Molecular analysis of the histone gene cluster of Psammechinus miliaris: III. Polarity and asymmetry of the histone-coding sequences. Cell 8, 479-484

Schaffner, W., Gross, K., Telford, J. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1976) Molecular analysis of the histone gene cluster of Psammechinus miliaris: II. The arrangement of the five histone-coding and spacer sequences. Cell 8, 471-478

Gross, K., Probst, E., Schaffner, W. & Birnstiel, M.L. (1976) Molecular analysis of the histone gene cluster of Psammechinus miliaris: I. Fractionation and identification of five individual histone mRNAs. Cell 8, 455-469

Schaffner, W. & Weissmann, C. (1973) A rapid, sensitive and specific method for the determination of protein in dilute solution. Analyt.Biochem. 56, 502-514

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